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La caféine améliore les performances cérébrales

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La caféine améliore les performances cérébrales

Messagepar Nutrimuscle-Conseils » 15 Aoû 2012 11:05

la taurine contre-carre certains effets positifs de la caféine

Differential cognitive effects of energy drink ingredients: Caffeine, taurine, and glucose

Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior Volume 102, Issue 4, October 2012, Pages 569–577 Grace E. Giles

Energy drinks containing caffeine, taurine, and glucose may improve mood and cognitive performance. However, there are no studies assessing the individual and interactive effects of these ingredients. We evaluated the effects of caffeine, taurine, and glucose alone and in combination on cognitive performance and mood in 24-hour caffeine-abstained habitual caffeine consumers. Using a randomized, double-blind, mixed design, 48 habitual caffeine consumers (18 male, 30 female) who were 24-hour caffeine deprived received one of four treatments (200 mg caffeine/0 mg taurine, 0 mg caffeine/2000 mg taurine, 200 mg caffeine/2000 mg taurine, 0 mg caffeine/0 mg taurine), on each of four separate days, separated by a 3-day wash-out period. Between-participants treatment was a glucose drink (50 g glucose, placebo). Salivary cortisol, mood and heart rate were measured. An attention task was administered 30-minutes post-treatment, followed by a working memory and reaction time task 60-minutes post-treatment. Caffeine enhanced executive control and working memory, and reduced simple and choice reaction time.

Taurine increased choice reaction time but reduced reaction time in the working memory tasks.

Glucose alone slowed choice reaction time.

Glucose in combination with caffeine, enhanced object working memory and in combination with taurine, enhanced orienting attention.

Limited glucose effects may reflect low task difficulty relative to subjects' cognitive ability.

Caffeine reduced feelings of fatigue and increased tension and vigor.

Taurine reversed the effects of caffeine on vigor and caffeine-withdrawal symptoms.

No effects were found for salivary cortisol or heart rate. Caffeine, not taurine or glucose, is likely responsible for reported changes in cognitive performance following consumption of energy drinks, especially in caffeine-withdrawn habitual caffeine consumers.[/u]
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Messagepar Nutrimuscle-Conseils » 15 Aoû 2012 11:08

Caffeine increases psychomotor performance on the effort expenditure for rewards task

Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior Volume 102, Issue 4, October 2012, Pages 526–531
Margaret C. Wardlea

Preclinical studies suggest that cost/benefit decision-making involves interactions between adenosine and dopamine (DA). In rats, DA depletion decreases willingness to incur effort costs, while adenosine antagonism reverses these effects, likely by increasing DA transmission. Caffeine is a non-selective adenosine antagonist commonly used to facilitate effortful tasks, and thus may affect decisions involving effort costs in humans. The current study examined acute effects of 200 mg of caffeine on willingness to exert effort for monetary rewards at varying levels of reward value and reward probability, in young adult light caffeine users. Based on previous findings with amphetamine, we predicted that caffeine would increase willingness to exert effort. At separate sessions, 23 healthy normal adults received placebo or 200 mg caffeine under counterbalanced double-blind conditions, then completed the effort expenditure for rewards task (EEfRT). Measures of subjective and cardiovascular effects were obtained at regular intervals. Caffeine produced small but significant subjective and cardiovascular effects, and sped psychomotor performance on the EEfRT. Caffeine did not alter willingness to exert effort, except in high cardiovascular responders to caffeine, in whom it decreased willingness to exert effort. These results were contrary to our predictions, but consistent with rodent studies suggesting that moderate doses of caffeine alone do not affect effort, but rather only influence effort in the context of DA antagonism. Our results demonstrate that psychomotor speeding and decisional effects on the EEfRT are dissociable, providing additional evidence for the EEfRT as a specific measure of effort-based decision-making. This study provides a starting point for exploring contributions of the adenosine system to motivation in humans.
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